Cancer / Tumor
Cancer can start anywhere in the body. It starts when cells grow out of control and crowd normal cells. This causes problems in the part of the body where the cancer started. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis.
Cancer that begins in the colon is called a colon cancer, while cancer in the rectum is known as a rectal cancer. Cancers affecting either of these organs also may be referred to as a colorectal cancer.
Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they may vary depending on the cancer’s size and location in the large intestine. Signs and symptoms of colon cancer may include:
Colorectal cancer is described clinically by the stages at which it is discovered. The various stages of a colorectal cancer are determined by the depth of invasion through the wall of the intestine; the involvement of the lymph nodes (the drainage nodules); and the spread to other organs (metastases).
To check for early colon cancer, doctors recommend certain screening tests for healthy people. But, if the signs and symptoms indicate that one has colon cancer, a doctor may recommend one or more tests and procedures, including:
After diagnosis, the doctor will order tests to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer.
Treatment will depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and the age, health status, and other characteristics of the patient. The most common options for colon cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Treatments seek to remove the cancer and relieve any painful symptoms.
Surgery for early-stage colon cancer
Surgery for invasive colon cancer
Surgery for advanced cancer
Other options are
Gastric cancer, or stomach cancer, is a malignancy (unrestrained growth of abnormal tissue) of the lining of the stomach.
Early-stage stomach cancers are hard to detect as they rarely show symptoms, unless it is at an advanced stage (spreads to other areas of body). One should consult a doctor early for detection of causes and follow up treatment on observation of any of the following signs and symptoms:
If suspected, a doctor would order further investigation. This includes:
This process of investigation is called staging when the spread of cancer is assessed based on the depth of tumour invasion into the stomach wall, check any effect on lymph glands and the spread to other organs like liver or lungs. This will help determine the possible treatment and the likely outcome.
The treatment options for cancer depend upon the stage of the cancer. The best approach uses two or more of the following treatment methods.
Cancer of the esophagus (also called esophageal cancer) starts in the inner layer (the mucosa) and grows outward (through the submucosa and the muscle layer).
Other possible symptoms of cancer of the esophagus can include:
The above symptoms don’t necessarily mean that one has esophageal cancer as many of them are likely caused by other conditions. Still, if one has any of these symptoms, especially trouble swallowing, it’s important to have a doctor check it out so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
If esophageal cancer is suspected, exams and tests need to confirm the diagnosis. If cancer is found, further tests will be done to help determine the extent (stage) of the cancer.
Screening is the process of looking for cancer or pre-cancer in people who have no symptoms of the disease. This is because no screening test has been shown to lower the risk of dying from esophageal cancer in people who are at average risk.
However, people who have a high risk of esophageal cancer are often followed closely to look for early cancers and pre-cancers.
Test for Esophageal Cancer
Some treatments are called local therapies, meaning they treat the tumour in a specific location, without affecting the rest of the body. Types of local therapy used for esophageal cancer include:
These are treatments that involve drugs which can be given by mouth or directly into the bloodstream. And as they travel through your whole system, allowing them to reach cancer cells almost anywhere in the body, they are called systemic therapies. Depending on the type of esophageal cancer, several different types of drugs might be used, including:
Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, different types of treatment may be combined at the same time or used after one another.
Some of these treatments can also be used as palliative treatment when all the cancer cannot be removed. Palliative treatment is meant to relieve symptoms, such as pain and trouble swallowing, but it is not expected to cure the cancer.